- dhē-2English meaning: to put, placeDeutsche Übersetzung: ‘setzen, stellen, legen”Material: O.Ind. dádhüti, Av. daδüiti “ he places “, O.Pers. Impf. sg. adadü “ he has installed “, O.Ind. Aor.á-dhü-m “I placed”, Med. 3. sg. á-dhita (= Gk. ἔθετο) ; to-participle O.Ind. hitá-ḥ (-dhitá-ḥ in ved. compounds) ‘set, settled “ (= Lat. con-ditus, ab-ditus, crēditus, probably also Gk. θετός “ sedate, calm, settled, placed, set; having position; taken as one’s child, adopted “), with full grade Av. O.Pers. düta- (= Lith. de ́tas “ sedate, calm, settled “, O.Pruss. sen-ditans acc. pl. f. “ folded “, also Gk. θητόν βωμόν Hes., eig. “ set raised platform, placed stand “); Inf. O.Ind. dhǘ -tum (= Lith. de ́tų Supin., O.C.S. dětь “to place” : Lat. [late] conditus, -ūs m. “ pickled, preserved; of corpses, embalmed; in gen., seasoned, savory “, Supin. -um, -ū, compare also O.Ind. dhǘ tu-ḥ), m. “ component, set”, Av. vīδütu- n. “ grounds, rationale, steady acquiescence “); i̯o-present O.Ind. dhüyatē “ places for oneself “ (= Ltv. dêju, dêt “place, lay eggs”, dẽju dẽt “ solder together “, O.C.S. dějǫ “lay, place”, O.Cz. děju “make”); perf. O.Ind. dadhǘ u, dadhimá, Av. 3. sg. daδa (: Gk. τέθεμαι, Lat. -didī, Osc. prú-ffed, O.H.G. teta etc). Arm. ed Aor. “he placed” (= O.Ind. á-dhüt; 1. sg. edi, 2. sg. edir), present dnem “ I place “(*dinem, IE *dhē-no-, compare Russ. dĕ́nu ‘sit, put, lay, place”, Ser.-Cr. djènēm “ do, put, lay “); Maybe nasalized Alb.Gheg me ndenj”to sit, while, stay”, ndej “hang lose, place” Phryg. εδαες “has placed” (*e-dhǝ-es-t? rather = Hitt. da-a-iš); Gk. τίθημι “put” (Aor. ἔθηκα - see under -, ἔθεμεν, ἔθετο, Fut. θήσω, participle θετός); Messap. hi-pa-of “ has placed “ (*ĝhi-po-dhēs-t, J. B. Hofmann KZ. 63, 267); Lat. abdere “ put away, remove, set aside, stow away”, con-dere “ to put together, make by joining, found, establish, build, settle” (in addition Cōnsus [*kom-d-to-] an ancient deity, god of secret plans), perdere “ to make away with, destroy, ruin, squander, dissipate, throw away, waste, lose “, crēdere “believe, trust” (see below *kered- “heart”); about the interference of dare with respective forms s. WH. I 362; perf. condidī etc, Osc. prú-ffed “ has placed “ (*-fefed).Note: Common italic.-Lat. d- > f- shift. With einer k-extension Lat. faciō, -ere, fecī (: ἔθηκα), factum “ to make, form, do, perform; of feelings and circumstances, to cause, bring about “, Osc. fakiiad, Umbr. fac̣ia “ he/she makes, constructs, fashions, frames, builds, produces, composes “, fakurent Fut. II [subjunctive] “they will have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed “, praen. (passionate inscription) FheFhaked “he/she has made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed “, Osc. fefacit Konj. perf. “let he/she have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed “, fefacust Fut. II “he/she will have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed “; with *fēk- Umbr. feitu, fetu [Imperative]” he/she will have made, constructed, fashioned, framed, erected, produced, composed “: facilis “( feasible) easy to do; easy to manage, convenient, favorable “, Umbr. fac̣efele ds.; faciēs “ shape, form, figure, outward appearance; esp. face, countenance. Transf., character, nature; seeming, pretence “, facinus, ponti-fex, arti-fex bene-ficus under likewise; to meaning of interficiō “ to put out of the way, destroy, bring to naught, slay, kill” (“*allow to disappear”) compare O.Ind. antar-hita-ḥ “ vanished “. The same k-extension besides in Gk. ἔθηκα also in θήκη “ receptacle “, O.Ind. dhü-ká-ḥ “ container “ and Phryg. αδ-δακετ “ afflicts, causes death “, Med. αδ-δακετορ; Ven. vhaχsϑo “ he/she makes, constructs, fashions, frames, builds, erects, produces, composes “ (*fak-sto, the f probably from Ital.); Hitt. dak-ki-eš-zi (dakkeszi) “ makes, places down “ (: Lat. facessō), dak-šu-ul (daksul) “friendly” (: aLat. facul); perhaps Toch. A tükü “I was, became”, B taküwü ds. (different Pedersen Toch. 194); Gaul. dede “ he/she has placed “; compare Lat. con-, ab-, crē-didī, O.H.G. teta “ I made, did”; O.Ir. -tarti “gives, yields “ (*to-ro-ad-dīt from *dhē-t), perf. do-rat (*to-ro-ad-dat from *dhǝ-t), Thurneysen Gk. 35; O.H.G. tōm, tuom, O.S. tōn, O.E. dōm “do”, Inf. O.H.G. tuon, O.S. O.E. dōn (*dhō-m) “do”, preterit O.H.G. teta “I made, did” (2. sg. tüti, pl. tütu-m; reshaped after the type of Goth. sētum), O.S. deda (2. sg. dedōs, 3. pl. düdun, dedun), O.E. dyde < dudi (see above to O.Ind. dadhǘ u); particle perf. pass. O.H.G. gi-tün, O.E. dōn “ done “ from *dhē-no- = O.C.S. o-děnъ “ wrapped, dressed “; in the ending of reduced Präter. (Goth. salbō-dēdun etc) one tries to seek mostly the root dhē-, whereas in Goth. kunÞa “ granted “, must contain the IE -t-, to accept an other formatIon. compare Hirt, IE Gk. IV, 99, Sverdrup NTS. 2, 55 ff., Marstrander, NTS. 4, 424 f., Specht KZ. 62, 69 ff., Kretschmer Sbb. Wien, 225. Bd., 2. Abh., 6 f. Lith. de ́ti “lay, place, put”, present 2. pl. old deste (*dhe-dh-te), sg. demì, desie-s, dest(i) (compare Būga Kalba ir s. 158, 213), neologism dedù; Ltv. dêt (see above); O.C.S. děti “lay, place” (also ‘say”), present deždǫ (*dedi̯ō) and dějǫ (see above); dějǫ, dějati “lay, place, do”; -va-iterative O.C.S. o-děvati “(to put), dress “, Russ. děvátь ‘set down, do, place”; in addition probably Lith. dėviù, dėvėt́ i “wear a dress”; a formant u̯ also in Gk. *θοFακος and (assim.) *θαFακος, compare θοάζω ‘sit, put”, Ion. θῶκος (Hom. θόωκος written for θό[F]ακος) ‘seat”, θάβακον θᾶκον ἤ θρόνον Hes., Att. also θᾶκος ds., Hom. θαάσσω ‘sit”, Att. poet. θά̄σσω ds. (see to Gk. group Bechtel Lexil. 161 f., Boisacq 335); compare also Thrac. -dava “ settling, settlement “ from *dhēu̯ ü or *dhǝu̯ ü; probably reshuffling after the concurrent *dō-: *dou- “bestow, give”;Note: The suffix -dava “ settling, settlement “ frequently scattered over the Thrac. territory and city names is absent in Illyr. toponyms, hence Illyr.-Alb. and trak. were two different people. Hitt. da-a-i (düi) ‘setzt, legt”, 1. sg. te-eḫ-ḫi (tehhi), 3. pl. ti-an-zi (Pedersen Hitt. 91, 112 f., 166), preterit 3. sg. da-a-iš; perhaps also dak-ki-eš-zi (see above); Toch. A tü-, täs-, tas-, B tes- “lay, place” (*dhē-s- Pedersen Toch. 186 f.); Lyc. ta- “lay, place” (Pedersen. Lyc. and Hitt. 30 f.). Root nouns (in compositions): e.g. O.Ind. vayō-dhǘ -ḥ “ imparting vitality “, saṁ-dhǘ f. “ pact, agreement, promise “ (: Lith. arklì-dė “ stable “), saṁ-dh-á-m “ association “ (: Lith. sam-das), ratna-dh-á-ḥ “ imparting treasure “, ni-dh-í-ḥ m. “ container, treasure, tribute”, sam-dh-í-ḥ m. “ association, covenant, fusion “, Av. gao-δi- “ milk container “; Lith. samdas “ rent, rental “, iñdas “vessel”, nuodaĩ “ poison “, (old) núodžia “ debt, blame, offense “, pãdis “ the hen lays an egg “; O.Pruss. umnode “ bakehouse “, Lith. pelùdė, Ltv. pelude “ chaff container “, O.C.S. obь-do n. “θησαυρός”, sǫ-dъ “κρίσις, κρῖμα”; compare Berneker 193 ff., Trautmann 47 f.; if so also O.Ice. oddr, O.E. ord, O.H.G. ort “cusp, peak” as *ud-dho-s “ pointed up”? nominal formation: O.Ind. dhǘ tar- m. “ instigator, founder “, dhütá r- “creator, god” (compare also O.C.S. dětelь “perpetrator”), Gk. θετήρ, Lat. con-ditor “ a founder; hence, in gen., contriver, composer, author “; compare *dhǝ-tlo- in O.Ir. dül, O.Welsh datl, Welsh dadl, O.Bret. dadl “congregation, meeting”, Bret. dael “ contest, quarrel “ (compare to meaning Phryg. δουμος); *dhǝ-ti- in O.Ind. -dhiti-ḥ f. “ stead “, dēvá -hiti-ḥ “ God’s statute “, Gk. θέσις f. “ statute, order “, Lat. con-diti-ō f. “ an agreement, stipulation, condition, compact, proposition, terms, demand “; *dhē-ti-s in Av. ni-δüiti- f. “ laying down, putting away, hiding “, Goth. gadēds “ deed, position, place “, O.Ice. düð “ skillfulness, deed, act”, O.E. dǣ d, O.H.G. tüt “deed, act”, Lith. de ́tis “ load, burden “, pl. de ́tys “ lay of the chicken, the goose “, O.C.S. blagodětъ “ Grace, blessing, gratitude “; *dhǝ-t- in Thrac. PN Δάτος, Alb. dhatë (*dhǝ-tü) “ site “; *dhō-t- in Av. dami-dü-t “ the created creature “, Lat. sacer-dōs “ a priest, priestess “ (*sacro-dhōt-s). O.Ind. dhüna-m “ container “, el. συνθῆναι (?) “pact, covenant”, O.H.G. participle gitün, O.E. dōn “ done “, O.C.S. o-děnъ “(completed), vested “; O.Ind. dhána-m “ sacrifice, offering, price in competition etc “, nidhánam “ layover, stay, inhabitation etc”, gōdhana-m “ cattle possession “, Av. gao-δana- n. “ milk container “. O.Ind. dhǘ man- n. “ statute, law, dwelling, troop, multitude, crowd etc”, Av. düman-, dąman- n. ‘site, creature”, Gk. ἀνά-θημα “ anything devoted to evil, an accursed thing “, ἐπί- θημα “ something put on, a lid, cover; statue on a grave”, θημών m. “heap”; εὐθήμων “probably keeping tidy, keeping in order “; Thrac. plant name κοα-δάμα ποταμογείτων (Dioskor.) from *kʷa-dhēmn̥ “ water settlement “, PN Uscu-dama; secondary (after θέσις) Gk. θέμα n. “ that which is placed or laid down: money deposited, deposit; also, of grain; treasure, pile, of loaves, coffer, position, situation, nativity, common burial-place, common land, private burial-ground, something proposed as a prize, case proposed for discussion, theme of an argument, proposition, premise, arbitrary determination, primary (nonderivative) element or form, of the present tense, mode of reduction of an irregular syllogism “, compare also Inf. θέμεναι; Av. dümi- f. “ creation “, adj. (also fem.) “ constituting, originating, creator, god”; Gk. θέμις “that which is laid down or established by custom”, gen. originally θέμιστος “*allowed by the laws of God and men, righteous “ as Goddess’s name, then “right, law, custom”, θέμεθλα pl. “ the foundation of a building; the innermost, core “, θεμέλιοι λίθοι “ the foundation-stones “, Hom. θεμείλια (ει metr. lengthening) “ the foundations, loWest part, bottom, ground”; Alb. themel “ the foundation of a building; the innermost, core “ : Hom. θεμείλια (ει metr. lengthening) “ foundation, ground” [probably a loanword]; themën “heel, bottom of the foot”. zero grade: θαμά “*massed; frequent, often “, θαμινός “frequent, often, massed”, Hom. θαμέες, femin. θαμειαί pl. “ the piled up, tightly packed, crowded, close-set, thick “ (from *θαμύς), θάμνος “ thicket, shrubbery, bush, shrub”; in a *dhǝ-mo- “ settlement, branch, dwelling” (compare θαιμός οἰκία, σπόρος, φυτεία Hes. [*dhǝmi̯ o-], also O.Ind. dhüman- “dwelling”) or “heap, troop, multitude, crowd (the servant)” correlates one perhaps rightly also with Lat. famulus “ a servant, a male slave, attendant “, familia “ a household (of slaves), establishment “, Osc. famel “ a servant, a male slave, attendant “, famelo “ a household (of slaves), establishment “, Umbr. fameřias “ a household (of slaves), establishment “;Note: Common Lat. d- > f- shift ō-grade Gk. θωμός “heap, barn, haystack”; Phryg. δουμος “an assembly, meeting, congress, a living together”, Lat. ab-dōmen “lower abdomen” as “intimate, hidden, secret part”, compare O.H.G. intuoma “ the chief internal organs of the body, significant organs “ (would be Lat. *indōmen ), M.L.G. ingedōme , Bavar. ingetum ds., Goth. dōms m. “judgement, fame” (dōmjan “adjudicate”; from dem Gmc. Russ. dúma “thought, notion, care; council meeting “ etc, s. Berneker 237), O.E. dōm “opinion, sense, mind, judgement, court”, O.H.G. tuom “judgement, feat, deed, act, custom, state, status”, Lith. domė̃, domesỹs “ attention, directing of the thought and will on something “, also Lith. dėme ̃ “ spot upon which attention is directed “ etc, dėme ́tis = dome ́tis “ wonder, care, concern, follow, go, take interest “. O.Ice. dǣ ll “ easy to do, easy, without difficulty “ (*dhē-li-s); compare Run. dalidun “ they did “ (preterit of Gmc. *dēlian), Lith. pa-dėlỹs “ nest-egg (the hen lays an egg) “, priedėle ̃, príedėlis “ inclosure “, O.Bulg. dĕlo n. “work”, wherefore (see Berneker 195 f., Trautmann 48) O.C.S. dělja, děljьma m. gen. “because of”, Lith. de ̃l, del̃, de ̃liai, Ltv. dẽl” with gen. “because of, for the sake of”. Maybe from Slavic ne “not” + O.C.S.: dělo “work, matter” = Bulgarian неделя (nedel”a), Serbian nedelja, Czech neděle, Polish niedziela ‘sunday, holiday = no work” : Lithuanian: dėlioti “put down, away” : Albanian djelë ‘sunday, holiday”. An occasional formation compare still Gk. τεθμός (Pind.), θεθμός (lak. etc), θεσμός (Att.) “ statute “ after Thurneysen (KZ. 51, 57) to O.Ir. dedm, Welsh deddf (*dhe-dh-mü) ds. (different Schwyzer Gk. I 49212); θωή, Att. θωά: “ punishment “. Very doubtful a s-extension would be attributed to O.Ice. des (*dasjō) “ hay stick, hay rick “ (Lw. from dem O.Ir.?), O.Ir. dais (*dasti-) “heap, hay rick”, wherewith E. Lewy (KZ. 52, 310) compares rather Osset. dasun “pile up, lump”.References: WP. I 826 ff., WH. I 266, 362 f., 439 ff., 863, Trautmann 47 ff., Schwyzer Gk. I 492, 686, 722, 725, 741, Pedersen Hitt. 141 ff., 192.
Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.
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